Encyclopedia of African-American Education


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In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. In the face of years of mounting violence and intimidation directed at blacks as well as whites sympathetic to their cause, the U. When President Rutherford B.

Hayes withdrew Union troops from the South in as a result of a national compromise on the election, blacks lost most of their political power. Men like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton began speaking of leaving the South. This idea culminated in the —80 movement of the Exodusters , who migrated to Kansas, where blacks had much more freedom and it was easier to acquire land. When Democrats took control of Tennessee in , they passed laws making voter registration more complicated and ended the most competitive political state in the South.

Voting by blacks in rural areas and small towns dropped sharply, as did voting by poor whites. From to , starting with Mississippi and ending with Georgia, ten of eleven Southern states adopted new constitutions or amendments that effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.

Using a combination of provisions such as poll taxes , residency requirements and literacy tests , states dramatically decreased black voter registration and turnout, in some cases to zero. As power became concentrated under the Democratic Party in the South, the party positioned itself as a private club and instituted white primaries , closing blacks out of the only competitive contests. By one-party white rule was firmly established across the South. Although African Americans quickly started litigation to challenge such provisions, early court decisions at the state and national level went against them.

In Williams v. Mississippi , the US Supreme Court upheld state provisions. This encouraged other Southern states to adopt similar measures over the next few years, as noted above. Booker T. Washington , of Tuskegee Institute secretly worked with Northern supporters to raise funds and provide representation for African Americans in additional cases, such as Giles v. Harris and Giles v. Teasley , but again the Supreme Court upheld the states. Segregation for the first time became a standard legal process in the South; it was informal in Northern cities.

Jim Crow limited black access to transportation, schools, restaurants and other public facilities. Most southern blacks for decades continued to struggle in grinding poverty as agricultural, domestic and menial laborers. Many became sharecroppers , sharing the crop with the white land owners.. In , the Ku Klux Klan , a secret vigilante organization dedicated to destroying the Republican Party in the South, especially by terrorizing black leaders, was formed. Klansmen hid behind masks and robes to hide their identity while they carried out violence and property damage. The Klan used terrorism , especially murder and threats of murder, arson and intimidation.

The Klan's excesses led to the passage of legislation against it, and with Federal enforcement, it was destroyed by The anti-Republican and anti-freedmen sentiment only briefly went underground, as violence arose in other incidents, especially after Louisiana's disputed state election in , which contributed to the Colfax and Coushatta massacres in Louisiana in and Tensions and rumors were high in many parts of the South. When violence erupted, African Americans consistently were killed at a much higher rate than were European Americans.

Historians of the 20th century have renamed events long called "riots" in southern history.


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The common stories featured whites heroically saving the community from marauding blacks. Upon examination of the evidence, historians have called numerous such events "massacres", as at Colfax, because of the disproportionate number of fatalities for blacks as opposed to whites. The mob violence there resulted in 40—50 blacks dead for each of the three whites killed. While not as widely known as the Klan, the paramilitary organizations that arose in the South during the mids as the white Democrats mounted a stronger insurgency, were more directed and effective than the Klan in challenging Republican governments, suppressing the black vote and achieving political goals.

Unlike the Klan, paramilitary members operated openly, often solicited newspaper coverage, and had distinct political goals: to turn Republicans out of office and suppress or dissuade black voting in order to regain power in Groups included the White League , that started from white militias in Grant Parish, Louisiana, in and spread in the Deep South ; the Red Shirts , that started in Mississippi in but had chapters arise and was prominent in the election campaign in South Carolina , as well as in North Carolina ; and other White Line organizations such as rifle clubs.

The Jim Crow era accompanied the most cruel wave of "racial" suppression that America has yet experienced. Between and , millions of African Americans were disenfranchised, killed, and brutalized. According to newspaper records kept at the Tuskegee Institute , about 5, men, women, and children were murdered in documented extrajudicial mob violence —called " lynchings. Wells estimated that lynchings not reported by the newspapers, plus similar executions under the veneer of " due process ", may have amounted to about 20, killings.

Of the tens of thousands of lynchers and onlookers during this period, it is reported that fewer than 50 whites were ever indicted for their crimes, and only four were sentenced. Because blacks were disenfranchised, they could not sit on juries or have any part in the political process, including local offices. Meanwhile, the lynchings were used as a weapon of terror to keep millions of African-Americans living in a constant state of anxiety and fear. In response to these and other setbacks, in the summer of , W.

There, they produced a manifesto calling for an end to racial discrimination, full civil liberties for African Americans and recognition of human brotherhood. The organization they established came to be called the Niagara Movement. They pooled their resources to create independent community and institutional lives for themselves.

They established schools, churches, social welfare institutions, banks, African-American newspapers and small businesses to serve the needs of their communities. Progressive Era reformers were often concerned with the black condition. In after the Atlanta Race Riot got him involved, Ray Stannard Baker published the book Following the Color Line: An Account of Negro Citizenship in the American Democracy , becoming the first prominent journalist to examine America's racial divide; it was extremely successful.

Sociologist Rupert Vance says it is:. During the first half of the 20th century, the largest internal population shift in U. Starting about , through the Great Migration over five million African Americans made choices and "voted with their feet" by moving from the South to northern and western cities in hopes of escaping political discrimination and hatred, violence, finding better jobs, voting and enjoying greater equality and education for their children.

In the s, the concentration of blacks in New York led to the cultural movement known as the Harlem Renaissance , whose influence reached nationwide. The South Side of Chicago , a destination for many on the trains up from Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana, became the black capital of America, generating flourishing businesses, music, arts and foods.

A new generation of powerful African-American political leaders and organizations also came to the fore. Membership in the NAACP rapidly increased as it mounted an anti-lynching campaign in reaction to ongoing southern white violence against blacks. Philip Randolph 's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters part of the American Federation of labor all were established during this period and found support among African Americans, who became urbanized. Although most prominent African-American businesses have been owned by men, women played a major role especially in the area of beauty.

Standards of beauty were different for whites and blacks, and the black community developed its own standards, with an emphasis on hair care. Beauticians could work out of their own homes, and did not need storefronts. As a result, black beauticians were numerous in the rural South, despite the absence of cities and towns. They pioneered the use of cosmetics, at a time when rural white women in the South avoided them.

As Blain Roberts has shown, beauticians offered their clients a space to feel pampered and beautiful in the context of their own community because, "Inside black beauty shops, rituals of beautification converged with rituals of socialization. By contrast in the black community, beauty contests were developed out of the homecoming ceremonies at their high schools and colleges.

Walker — ; she built a national franchise business called Madame C. Walker Manufacturing Company based on her invention of the first successful hair straightening process. The U.

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Still, many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America's entry into the war. More than two million African American men rushed to register for the draft. Most African American units were relegated to support roles and did not see combat. Still, African Americans played a significant role in America's war effort. Four African American regiments were integrated into French units because the French suffered heavy losses and badly needed men after three years of a terrible war.

One of the most distinguished units was the th Infantry Regiment , known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. They earned glory in the decisive final offensive in Champagne region of France. During action in France , Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being wounded twice. Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued the fight on a German machine gun nest near Bussy farm in Champagne, and eventually defeated the German troops.

Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his death, but according to the Army, the nomination was misplaced. Many believed the recommendation had been intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In , under pressure from Congress , the Defense Department launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, — 73 years after he was killed in action — Stowers' two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H.

Bush at the White House. The New Deal did not have a specific program for blacks only, but it sought to incorporate them in all the relief programs that it began. All races had had the same wage rates and working conditions in the WPA. It set quotas for private firms hiring skilled and unskilled blacks in construction projects financed through the PWA, overcoming the objections of labor unions. An immediate response was a shift in the black vote in Northern cities from the GOP to the Democrats blacks seldom voted in the South.

Slave Literacy and Education in Virginia

Militants demanded a federal anti-lynching bill, but President Roosevelt knew it would never pass Congress but would split his New Deal coalition. In Chicago the black community had been a stronghold of the Republican machine, but in the Great Depression the machine fell apart. Voters and leaders moved en masse into the Democratic Party as the New Deal offered relief programs and the city Democratic machine offered suitable positions in the Democratic Party for leaders such as William Dawson , who went Congress.

The largest group of blacks worked in the cotton farms of the Deep South as sharecroppers or tenant farmers; a few owned their farms. Large numbers of whites also were tenant farmers and sharecroppers. Tenant farming characterized the cotton and tobacco production in the post-Civil War South. As the agricultural economy plummeted in the early s, all farmers in all parts of the nation were badly hurt. Worst hurt were the tenant farmers who had relatively more control and sharecroppers who had less control , as well as daily laborers mostly black, with least control.

The problem was very low prices for farm products and the New Deal solution was to raise them by cutting production. It accomplished this in the South by the AAA , which gave landowners acreage reduction contracts, by which they were paid to not grow cotton or tobacco on a portion of their land. By law, they were required to pay the tenant farmers and sharecroppers on their land a portion of the money, but some cheated on this provision, hurting their tenants and croppers.

The farm wage workers who worked directly for the landowner were mostly the ones who lost their jobs. For most tenants and sharecroppers the AAA was a major help. Researchers at the time concluded, "To the extent that the AAA control-program has been responsible for the increased price [of cotton], we conclude that it has increased the amount of goods and services consumed by the cotton tenants and croppers. Another consequence was that the historic high levels of turnover from year to year declined sharply, as tenants and coppers tend to stay with the same landowner.

Researchers concluded, "As a rule, planters seem to prefer Negroes to whites as tenants and coppers. Once mechanization came to cotton after , the tenants and sharecroppers were largely surplus; they moved to towns and cities. Over 1. They served in segregated units. Famous segregated units, such as the Tuskegee Airmen and the U.

Approximately 75 percent of the soldiers who served in the European theater as truckers for the Red Ball Express and kept Allied supply lines open were African-American. The distinguished service of these units was a factor in President Harry S. Truman 's order to end discrimination in the Armed Forces in July , with the promulgation of Executive Order This led in turn to the integration of the Air Force and the other services by the early s. Due to massive shortages as a result of the American entry into World War II, defense employers from Northern and Western cities went to the South to convince blacks and whites there to leave the region in promise of higher wages and better opportunities.

As a result, African-Americans left the South in large numbers to munitions centers in the North and West to take advantage of the shortages caused by the war, sparking the Second Great Migration. While they somewhat lived in better conditions than the South for instance, they could vote and send children to better schools , they nevertheless faced widespread discrimination due to bigotry and fear of competition of housing and jobs among white residents.

Racial tensions were also high between whites and ethnic minorities that cities like Chicago , Detroit , Los Angeles , and Harlem experienced race riots in Roosevelt , whom they widely admired. Black newspapers created the Double V campaign to build black morale and head off radical action. Most Black women had been farm laborers or domestics before the war. Their efforts redefined citizenship, equating their patriotism with war work, and seeking equal employment opportunities, government entitlements, and better working conditions as conditions appropriate for full citizens.

They broke through old stereotypes and far surpassed the limited, poorly paid roles available in race films produced for all-black audiences.

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It took place from , through World War II , and lasted until Some historians prefer to distinguish between the movements for those reasons. In the Second Great Migration, more than five million African Americans moved to cities in states in the Northeast, Midwest, and West, including the West Coast , where many skilled jobs in the defense industry were concentrated. More of these migrants were already urban laborers who came from the cities of the South. They were better educated and had better skills than people who did not migrate.

Compared to the more rural migrants of the period —40, many African Americans in the South were already living in urban areas and had urban job skills before they relocated. They moved to take jobs in the burgeoning industrial cities and especially the many jobs in the defense industry during World War II. Workers who were limited to segregated, low-skilled jobs in Southern cities were able to get highly skilled, well-paid jobs at West Coast shipyards.

More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West.

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The Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. This decision applied to public facilities, especially public schools. Reforms occurred slowly and only after concerted activism by African Americans. The ruling also brought new momentum to the Civil Rights Movement. Boycotts against segregated public transportation systems sprang up in the South, the most notable of which was the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

Civil rights groups such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC organized across the South with tactics such as boycotts, voter registration campaigns, Freedom Rides and other nonviolent direct action, such as marches, pickets and sit-ins to mobilize around issues of equal access and voting rights. Southern segregationists fought back to block reform. The conflict grew to involve steadily escalating physical violence, bombings and intimidation by Southern whites. Law enforcement responded to protesters with batons, electric cattle prods, fire hoses, attack dogs and mass arrests.

In Virginia , state legislators, school board members and other public officials mounted a campaign of obstructionism and outright defiance to integration called Massive Resistance. It entailed a series of actions to deny state funding to integrated schools and instead fund privately run "segregation academies" for white students. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. As a last-ditch effort to avoid court-ordered desegregation, officials in the county shut down the county's entire public school system in and it remained closed for five years.

The largely black rural population of the county had little recourse. Some families were split up as parents sent their children to live with relatives in other locales to attend public school; but the majority of Prince Edward's more than 2, black children, as well as many poor whites, simply remained unschooled until federal court action forced the schools to reopen five years later. The organizers of the march were called the " Big Six " of the Civil Rights Movement: Bayard Rustin the strategist who has been called the "invisible man" of the Civil Rights Movement; labor organizer and initiator of the march, A.

Also active behind the scenes and sharing the podium with Dr. It was at this event, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, that King delivered his historic " I Have a Dream " speech. This march, the Birmingham Children's Crusade , and other events were credited with putting pressure on President John F. Kennedy , and then Lyndon B.

Johnson , that culminated in the passage the Civil Rights Act of that banned discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and labor unions.

The "Mississippi Freedom Summer" of brought thousands of idealistic youth, black and white, to the state to run "freedom schools", to teach basic literacy, history and civics. Other volunteers were involved in voter registration drives. The season was marked by harassment, intimidation and violence directed at civil rights workers and their host families. The disappearance of three youths, James Chaney , Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner in Philadelphia, Mississippi , captured the attention of the nation.

Six weeks later, searchers found the savagely beaten body of Chaney, a black man, in a muddy dam alongside the remains of his two white companions, who had been shot to death. There was national outrage at the escalating injustices of the "Mississippi Blood Summer", as it by then had come to be known, and at the brutality of the murders. In the Selma Voting Rights Movement , its Selma to Montgomery marches , and the tragic murders of two activists associated with the march, inspired President Lyndon B. Johnson to call for the full Voting Rights Act of , which struck down barriers to black enfranchisement.

In the Chicago Open Housing Movement , followed by the passage of the Fair Housing Act , was a capstone to more than a decade of major legislation during the civil rights movement. By this time, African Americans who questioned the effectiveness of nonviolent protest had gained a greater voice. More militant black leaders, such as Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam and Eldridge Cleaver of the Black Panther Party , called for blacks to defend themselves, using violence, if necessary.

From the mids to the mids, the Black Power movement urged African Americans to look to Africa for inspiration and emphasized black solidarity, rather than integration. Politically and economically, blacks have made substantial strides in the post-civil rights era. Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson , who ran for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination in and , brought unprecedented support and leverage to blacks in politics.

There were 8, black officeholders in the United States in , showing a net increase of 7, since In there were black mayors. The 39 African-American members of Congress form the Congressional Black Caucus , which serves as a political bloc for issues relating to African Americans. The appointment of blacks to high federal offices—including General Colin Powell , Chairman of the U.

Economic progress for blacks' reaching the extremes of wealth has been slow. According to Forbes richest lists, Oprah Winfrey was the richest African American of the 20th century and has been the world's only black billionaire in , , and BET founder Bob Johnson briefly joined her on the list from to before his ex-wife acquired part of his fortune; although he returned to the list in , he did not make it in With Winfrey the only African American wealthy enough to rank among America's richest people, [] blacks currently comprise 0.

The dramatic political breakthrough came in the election, with the election of Barack Obama , the son of a black Kenyan father and a white American mother. He won overwhelming support from African-American voters in the Democratic primaries, even as his main opponent Hillary Clinton had the support of many black politicians. African Americans continued to support Obama throughout his term. In , he won the presidential election against candidate Mitt Romney and was re-elected as the president of the United States. The post-civil rights era is also notable for the New Great Migration , in which millions of African Americans have returned to the South including Texas , Georgia , Florida and North Carolina , often to pursue increased economic opportunities in now-desegregated southern cities.

After the Civil Rights Movement gains of the s—s, due to government neglect, unfavorable social policies, high poverty rates , changes implemented in the criminal justice system and laws, and a breakdown in traditional family units, African-American communities have been suffering from extremely high incarceration rates. African Americans have the highest imprisonment rate of any major ethnic group in the world. The history of slavery has always been a major research topic for white scholars, but until the s they generally focused on the political and constitutional themes as debated by white politicians; they did not study the lives of the black slaves.

During Reconstruction and the late 19th century, blacks became major actors in the South. The Dunning School of white scholars generally cast the blacks as pawns of white Carpetbaggers during this period, but W. Du Bois , a black historian, and Ulrich B. Phillips , a white historian, studied the African-American experience in depth. Du Bois' study of Reconstruction provided a more objective context for evaluating its achievements and weaknesses; in addition, he did studies of contemporary black life. Phillips set the main topics of inquiry that still guide the analysis of slave economics.

During the first half of the 20th century, Carter G. Woodson was the major black scholar studying and promoting the black historical experience. Woodson insisted that the study of African descendants be scholarly sound, creative, restorative, and, most important, directly relevant to the black community.

He popularized black history with a variety of innovative strategies, including Association for the Study of Negro Life outreach activities, Negro History Week now Black History Month , in February , and a popular black history magazine. Woodson democratized, legitimized, and popularized black history.

Benjamin Quarles —96 had a significant impact on the teaching of African-American history. Quarles and John Hope Franklin provided a bridge between the work of historians in historically black colleges , such as Woodson, and the black history that is now well established in mainline universities. Quarles grew up in Boston, attended Shaw University as an undergraduate, and received a graduate degree at the University of Wisconsin.

He began in teaching at Morgan State College in Baltimore, where he stayed, despite a lucrative offer from Johns Hopkins University. Quarles' books included The Negro in the American Revolution , Black Abolitionists , The Negro in the Civil War , and Lincoln and the Negro , which were narrative accounts of critical wartime episodes that focused on how blacks interacted with their white allies.

Black history attempted to reverse centuries of ignorance. While black historians were not alone in advocating a new examination of slavery and racism in the United States, the study of African-American history has often been a political and scholarly struggle to change assumptions. One of the foremost assumptions was that slaves were passive and did not rebel. A series of historians transformed the image of African Americans, revealing a much richer and complex experience. Historians such as Leon F.

Litwack showed how former slaves fought to keep their families together and struggled against tremendous odds to define themselves as free people. Others wrote of rebellions small and large. In the 21st century, black history is regarded as mainstream. Opponents argue such curricula are dishonest, divisive, and lack academic credibility and rigor. Surveys of 11th and 12th-grade students and adults in show that American schools have given students an awareness of some famous figures in black history.

Both groups were asked to name 10 famous Americans, excluding presidents. When distinguished historians were asked in to name the most prominent Americans, Parks and Tubman did not make the top From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on African Americans History.

Encyclopedia of African American Education

Black schools Historically black colleges and universities Greek and fraternal organizations Stepping. Studies Literature Art. Martin Luther King Jr. Middle class Upper class Billionaires. Institutions Black church. Black theology Womanist theology. LGBT community. Dialects and languages. Gullah Louisiana Creole. Main article: Middle Passage. Main article: Slavery in the United States. Main articles: Religion in Black America and Black church.

Main article: Haitian Revolution. Main article: Dred Scott v. See also: Civil rights movement — Main article: Great Migration African American. Main article: African-American Businesses. Main article: Civil Rights Movement. Herbert Aptheker Lerone Bennett, Jr. Harris, Jr. Wesley Isabel Wilkerson Carter G. Woodson George G. M James Asa G. United States portal. The Root. Retrieved July 8, Incredibly, most of the 42 million members of the African-American community descend from this tiny group of less than half a million Africans.

S During the Slave Trade? Retrieved New York: Pearson Education, Inc. The Black Collegian Online. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved June 4, Chapel Hill, The Terrible Transformation. Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved June 14, Archived from the original on June 4, American Slavery, — 2nd ed. New York: Hill and Wang. Retrieved 28 August February 2, Retrieved August 28, Summer Phi Kappa Phi Forum.

Archived from the original on June 10, Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved June 15, Maryland Historical Society. Hutson, Religion and the founding of the American Republic , p. American Nineteenth Century History. Brotherly Love. Retrieved June 16, Retrieved April 12, Lapsansky-Werner, and Gary B. Stampp Oxford University Press.

Blight LSU Press. Journal of Black Studies. By there were , free Blacks in the United States.

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About , lived in the northern states. The Journal of Negro History. Penguin academics 2 ed. Boston: Prentice Hall. As long as they don't move next door: segregation and racial conflict in American neighborhoods. Lanham, Md. Retrieved June 17, Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society. August Journal of Southern History. Retrieved April 6, Slave religion: the "invisible institution" in the antebellum South Updated ed. Retrieved December 27, Wilson Civil War Petersburg: Confederate city in the crucible of war. A nation divided.

Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Heritage Matters. Miller ed. The Greenwood Press "Daily life through history" series. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Archived from the original on June 3, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Retrieved June 12, Retrieved December 11, Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Reconstruction and Its Aftermath. Retrieved December 6, Journal of American History. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on May 11, December A state historical marker erected in noted that blacks died and three whites. For the systematic oppression and terror inflicted, see Leon F.

Cottrol and Raymond T. Washington Harvard University Press, The entries and the full-text articles make it a worthwhile purchase for large public and academic libraries. Also available as an e-book. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description Sage Publications, Inc. Condition: New. More information about this seller Contact this seller. Brand New!. Seller Inventory VIB This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Each topic in this 2-volume encyclopedia is discussed as it relates to the education of African Americans.

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Encyclopedia of African-American Education Encyclopedia of African-American Education
Encyclopedia of African-American Education Encyclopedia of African-American Education
Encyclopedia of African-American Education Encyclopedia of African-American Education
Encyclopedia of African-American Education Encyclopedia of African-American Education

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