This paper starts with a review of the potential utility of MPAs as a fisheries management tool and fishers' perspectives on the costs and benefits of MPAs. Fishing or gear closures, which in practice can be considered types of MPAs, are only one type of fisheries management tool among many others and are not always the most effective FAO, ; Garcia et al.
Ecosystem considerations related to maintenance of the target resources have often been implicit in fisheries management but with the application of the ecosystem approach to fisheries EAF , these aspects are addressed more broadly and more formally FAO, The interactions between different ecosystem components — including human dimensions — are being increasingly recognized, and in the broader fisheries management context MPAs are likely to have a more important role to play. However, EAF does not preclude the need for some of the core elements of fisheries management, which aim to ensure sustainability and productivity by controlling fishing mortality on target and bycatch species and ensuring a fishing capacity level that does not lead to economic waste.
They can also be used for controlling fish mortality of sedentary species i. MPAs can also be used to allocate access rights in specific locations with a view to have benefits accrue to certain users e.
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Positive effects of MPAs with regard to the recovery of overfished stocks through increases in fish and biomass inside MPAs have been widely documented Halpern, ; Lester et al. There is some empirical evidence of contributions by MPAs to fishery production outside the protected area although mostly at smaller scales Gell and Roberts, ; Halpern et al. Fisheries benefits may occur through improved recruitment and subsequent spillover of fish from inside an MPA to areas where they can be fished outside FAO, ; Garcia et al.
An example of spillover effect is the Apo Island Marine Reserve in the Philippines where changes in biomass have benefited local fishers fishing outside the reserve Russ et al. The positive fisheries effects of MPAs can lead to increased food and livelihood security in local fishing communities Roberts et al. The equitable distribution of costs and benefits to local communities needs to be considered during MPA planning and management Pomeroy and Christie, — a point that will be taken up in the following section. Two important lessons emerge from the literature on MPAs as fisheries management tools.
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First, the fisheries outcomes of MPAs depend on an array of social, governance, and ecological factors. Mechanisms need to be put into place to ensure that benefits from alternative livelihoods, such as tourism development, accrue to the local fishing communities in order to offset opportunity costs and to maintain support Bennett and Dearden, b. Second, MPAs are rarely effective as a fisheries management tool if used in isolation Halpern et al. The net effect on fish stocks will depend not solely on the MPA, but on the range of management measures in place for the fishery. If the MPA is the only measure, it is likely to lead to displacement of fishing effort, resulting in higher fishing costs, but no overall decrease in fishing pressure.
MPAs need to be accompanied by fisheries management measures that manage the fishery and associated ecosystem as a whole, including access regimes e. For centuries, indigenous peoples and artisanal fishers have used various forms of closures and protected areas to manage fisheries. These locally created and managed MPAs have included spatial, gear, seasonal, species, size, and access or tenure restrictions Johannes, , ; Charles, ; Cinner et al.
Historically, their locations and regulations were shaped by local knowledge, beliefs, and values and implemented through traditional mechanisms and governance institutions. The relative success of these sites and compliance with regulations could be attributed to their cultural or spiritual value, their perceived legitimacy, the strength of social contracts between users, and the implementation of local enforcement and sanctioning mechanisms.
Fisheries management, v. 4: Marine protected areas and fisheries
For example, McClenachan et al. First, exclusionary MPA policies can lead to unintended social and economic consequences including livelihood impacts, poverty, loss of tenure, community conflicts, and even physical displacement Christie, ; Pomeroy and Christie, ; Mascia et al. These negative impacts occur when lack of consideration is given to the needs and values of local stakeholders and communities during the creation and management of MPAs.
This is exemplified in the principal mandates of many MPAs citing knowledge, enjoyment, and conservation — all values that may ignore the needs of local fishers and communities in developing nations who rely directly on the ocean for livelihoods and survival. In policy, MPAs have increasingly taken on a broader sustainable development mandate Noel and Weigel, Considerable attention has been given to improving the management effectiveness of MPAs Pomeroy et al.
Protected areas cover a quarter of the national territory, but poverty, growing population density, and an increased mobility of multiple demographics, including migrant fishers, are causing stress to marine environments. Collaboration first developed at the local level around consultative forums that brought together community stakeholders and decentralized authorities. The purpose was to allow key interest groups to reach a collective agreement relating to access rights and permitted fishing techniques.
This agreement took the form of a comprehensive zoning scheme among five zones. Collaboration also developed at the institutional level where various entities share complimentary responsibilities for MPA management and enforcement.
Policy: Marine biodiversity needs more than protection
The planned next step is the participation of IBAP in negotiations regarding fisheries agreements and their financial components. Through extensive discussion with the MA Committees, the Fisheries Department was able to consult fishers when defining the parameters of the licensing programme and designing the catch share management system. The result of this inclusive process is that more than fishers are now licensed through the new management programme and nearly all fishers at the sites report that they are satisfied with the MA system and are increasingly calling for expansion.
The main threats include: overfishing; destructive fishing practices, namely the use of compressor traps, cyanide, and dynamite, and illegal fishing by commercial fishers. In order to address these problems a partnership was developed between three local entities: the municipal government, an NGO, and a fishers association in Tinambac, a community of adjacent to the AGCA MPA Demesa, unpublished.
In doing so, this partnership was able to reach out to the fishers and wider community of Tinambac to explain the benefits of respecting the MPA as well as build support for, and compliance with, its regulations and policies Borenstein, As a means of creating incentives to comply with regulations, the mayor supported the placement of three to six fish wardens often fishers who used to fish illegally in each coastal barangay. Each warden was provided a stipend and given the responsibility of supporting the enforcement of the MPA's policies through regular patrols and infraction reporting.
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority used a systematic conservation planning approach to achieve quantitative objectives for multiple biodiversity features, guided by biophysical operating principles. Target species within NTAs also have broader size and age distributions, more males, and larger females Adams et al. This means a 2. Besides the contribution of NTAs to sustaining fisheries in the Great Barrier Reef through a positive effect on target fish species, fish fecundity and larval export, NTAs can also improve habitat quality, maintain ecosystem structure and function, and maintain ecosystem goods and services McCook et al.
Across the European coast of the Mediterranean, artisanal fishers have organized themselves into a network, exchanging best practices and ensuring they have a voice in political fora www. A joint project between park managers, researchers, and WWF has recently looked at the key factors determining the successes or failures of artisanal fisheries management in coastal MPAs Di Franco et al. A good management framework — together with ecological principles related to the MPA location, as well as good enforcement and compliance — is key to ensure the MPA is functional and can deliver fisheries benefits within and beyond its borders.
In that survey, well managed MPAs show an increase or a stabilization of catch per unit effort over years. However, between and ecological monitoring showed a decline in fish biomass as a result of overfishing Campbell et al. Today, both the design of the MPA and the management systems being implemented have the joint goals of ensuring both biodiversity conservation and promoting sustainable fisheries productivity BTNK, Fishers and community members actively participate in managing these areas, undertaking joint patrols and implementing a unique hotline phone number for the communities to report any observed violations or activities potentially detrimental to local fisheries.
Recognizing the role that MPAs have on positively impacting fisheries and the involvement of fishers in the design and management processes, has been integral to bridging the divide between the interests of biodiversity conservation and fisheries productivity within this park. The main objective of establishing this MPA was to increase fisheries resources through the protection of critical habitat for breeding, shelter, and the growth of target species.
The government was mainly concerned with two major contributions from the fisheries sector: sustainable food security and employment opportunities. To date, there are 42 MPAs with a total area of The governance structure involves federal, state, and local government agencies. In , an MPA trust fund was established as a sustainable financing mechanism.
Pulau Payar Marine Park, which is situated around four small islands, with a total area Before the establishment of this MPA, the area was a major anchovy fishing ground. Using Reef Check methodology assessments of both snapper and grouper showed higher abundances at Palau Payar Marine Park than at any other island surveyed in Malaysia.
Snapper Since , the QNP has established seven NTZs, or 'sanctuaries' as they are known locally, with the aim of protecting spawning grounds and restoring fish populations within and outside the MPA.
These NTZs are managed jointly by small island communities and park authorities who have organized themselves into Fishing Committee Councils. While NTZs represent only 0. For instance, since the creation of the Matemo Island NTZ, fish diversity has increased, and while carnivores were the predominant species before the island became protected, more trophic groups are now represented. However, in , owing to a sudden spike in poaching, fishers noticed a decrease in the size of the fish within the NTZ and also within their fishing grounds.
A public campaign involving fishing communities, local authorities, and park managers was then launched to promote understanding of the importance of NTZs and adequate protection for ensuring the recovery of fish stocks Pires, unpublished manuscript. Pemba Bay. Meanwhile, community structures for traditional fisheries management have often broken down and some traditional practices have been lost McClenachan and Kittinger, In addition, international policy and many countries have been primarily focused on creating MPAs for environmental preservation and conservation, which has often led to conflicts among organizations with different mandates and stakeholders with different perspectives.
The case studies presented in this article discuss steps taken to bridge the divide between MPA conservation and fisheries management objectives in both developing and developed country contexts. The Belize case study clarifies the prerequisites for an effective partnership between a government institution, NGOs and local fishers with the aim of implementing a catch shares management system.
The Tinambac case study in the Philippines discusses innovative leadership and procedures for community management and enforcement. The Karimunjawa National Park case study in Indonesia describes the design of an MPA and a fisheries management system aimed at achieving the joint goals of biodiversity conservation and sustainable fisheries. The case of Quirimbas National Park in Mozambique points out some essential elements for ensuring the success of an MPA, such as respecting ecological and social connectivity principles.
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Experiences from developed countries are also instructive. One important part of the foundation that shapes the potential use of MPAs as a tool for both biodiversity conservation and fisheries management is the underlying governance framework. Since the MCA was put in place, WWF data has shown a consistent increase in fish aggregation numbers, which almost quadrupled in the space of three years. Factsheet: WWF in Koon. Papua New Guinea.
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Factsheet: WWF in Aborlan. Philippines Cagayancillo, Palawan After noticing the positive impact to fish stocks in the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, the people of Cagayancillo were inspired to better manage their waters closer to home. In , the community established the first set of local marine reserves in Cagayancillo, forming a chain of small marine protected areas MPAs.
Today, Cagayancillo has the largest protected coastal marine area in the Philippines. Inspired by a series of WWF facilitated community consultations and planning workshops, local representatives and community leaders realized they needed more authority and clout to continue protecting their waters particularly from transient fishermen, traveling from outside the municipality.
The completion of a year Comprehensive Land and Water Use Plan, which incorporates a Zoning Ordinance that includes the municipal-wide MPA will serve as a guide for all projects and activities of the public and private sectors in Cagayancillo. See other countries. Factsheet: WWF in Cagayancillo. Solomon Islands. A rescue mission. WWF aims to develop a blueprint for the protection of tuna nurseries and spawning areas to save Pacific bluefin and other tuna species from extinction.
The Tuna Blueprint will legally protect 3 million ha of spawning, nursery, and migratory areas for important tuna fisheries.
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Another 2 million ha will come from national programmes implementing collaborative management approaches for MPAs and Locally Managed Marine Areas LMMA with key stakeholders such as government, communities, and private sectors working together to protect both the marine biodiversity, and the people who rely on it to live.
Related Marine Managed Areas and Fisheries,
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