The tethered hydrophilic side chains would become plasticized with water upon contact with humidity, and provide breathability. In experiments using the same level of PEO in the main-chain, all dispersions gelled. Results and Discussion Table 1 summarizes the compositions and properties of experimental breathable dispersions. These new polyurethane dispersions can be synthesized with various types of main-chain polyols as well as aromatic or aliphatic isocyanates. As expected, moisture permeability is a strong function of PEO level.
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By far, it outweighs all other variables, including the type of isocyanate, polyol and soft segment content, in controlling the MVTR. The price of high breathability is the high water swelling of polymers with high PEO contents Figure Therefore, to produce highly breathable and durable coatings, one must crosslink the polymer after applying it to the fabric. Various crosslinking agents, including polyisocyanates, aziridines, melamines, carbodiimides, oxazolines and epoxides may be used. An unexpected finding was the dependence of breathability on the length of the side-chain PEO Table 2, Figure We hypothesize that as the length of the side-chain PEO increases, it becomes more and more incompatible with the polymer backbone, especially as PEO becomes plasticized with water upon contact with humid air.
As a result, the PEO phase separates into highly water compatible and, therefore, permeable channels, which provide for higher MVT rates. This phenomenon is analogous to electric conductivity; water molecules diffuse through paths of least resistance, just as electrons flow through paths of highest electrical conductivity.
Product Performance Several Permax products were fully compounded to a spectrum of cost-performance balances and applied onto fabric in production scale trials. The coated fabrics performed competitively with commercially available high-MVTR-coated and laminated products Figure Wash durability in 25 hot-water home laundry cycles was tested with fully formulated coatings on nylon fabric.
Hydrostatic head resistance was measured by a Mullen type tester. The choice of formulation ingredients, crosslinking agents, coating weight and methods greatly affected wash durability. In many cases, the failure mode was a tearing of the nylon fabric in places where the coating was stronger than the fabric. The typical initial Mullen burst pressure ranged from 80 to psi. Such a performance is equivalent to or better than the waterborne controls tested in this study.
A big advantage of the new Permax polymers over traditional PUDs is that they no longer require a neutralizing amine, such as triethylamine, to be dispersed. In addition, these new dispersions are produced without co-solvent, rendering them virtually free of VOC. Another advantage of using the side-chain PEO is that it allows production of inherently nonionic polymer dispersion. Carboxyl-stabilized anionic polyurethane dispersions generally require a pH greater than 7 and are not tolerant of acids and cationic additives.
The nonionic Permax polymers are colloidally stable over a wide range of pH values and are insensitive to cationic as well as numerous other additives. These performance features combine to make a robust formulation tool for textiles and many other types of applications, including paint, adhesives, house wraps, wood coatings, deck stains, fiberglass sizing, personal care, medical, packaging and many others. Table 3 lists the properties of the commercially available Permax dispersions. Conclusions The demand for moisture management and highly breathable fabric constructions is growing.
Permax hydrophilic nonionic polyurethane dispersions and compounds offer a viable alternative to solvent-containing, high-MVT systems and laminates used to produce waterproof breathable fabrics. The incorporation of hydrophilic pendent PEO groups into the polyurethane backbone provides highly breathable compositions when used at the appropriate level and with the proper length. The robust colloidal stability and functionality of these products provide new tools to meet the changing technical demands of the coated fabrics market.
The environmentally friendly Permax technology opens a window of opportunity into a broad range of applications that go beyond the textile coating industry. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the organizers and sponsors of the 31st International Waterborne, High-Solids, and Powder Coatings Symposium, , for the opportunity to present this paper, and Noveon, Inc.
For more information contact Alex. Lubnin noveoninc. Patent Application No. Fabrics, 27, 48 Progress in Organic Coatings, 9, Patent No. The first stage prepolymer was conducted under a blanket of dry nitrogen in a 1-quart paint can disposable reactor , which was equipped with a temperature-controlled aluminum water jacket and placed on a hot plate. The jacket and the hot plate were both controlled by the same temperature controller.
The sequence of monomer addition varied. If isocyanate-reactive compounds were added in stages, then each previous stage was reacted to below the theoretical content of NCO before the next monomers were added. After the prepolymer was fully reacted, it was cooled to a desired temperature and dispersed in water. A defoamer was used if excessive foaming was observed. After mixing for about an hour, the chain extender was gradually added. The swatch was mounted and stretched on a pin frame equipped with springs to apply tension to the fabric.
The fabric still mounted on the pin frame was stretched over an elevated glass plate on an aluminum frame.
Design, synthesis and properties of polyurethane hydrogels for tissue engineering | SpringerLink
The thickened polyurethane dispersion was applied twice at the 2-millimeter thickness using a Bird applicator. The final dried specimen typically had about 0. The jar mouth was coated with silicone grease.
A 3-byinch test specimen larger than the diameter of the jar mouth was placed across the greased jar mouth with the coated side facing inside the jar. The test specimen was locked into place across the jar mouth using a screw top lid with a gasket and having a circular opening. Hydrostatic Resistance Hydrostatic resistance as a function of wash cycles was measured by a Mullen type tester.
Total Solids Content Total solids content T. Brookfield Viscosity Brookfield viscosity B.
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The Mylar film with dried film on it was cut into 1-inch-wide strips and the cast film was removed from the Mylar film. Tensile strength, elongation and modulus tests were taken on an Instron. Mace Polymers and Additives Inc. You must login or register in order to post a comment. Report Abusive Comment Thank you for helping us to improve our forums.
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