The main thrust of Drama and Intelligence is that drama can enhance and develop various aspects of intelligence. Courtney suggests that the "costumed player" must bring into play many levels of intelligence in the rehearsal and execution of dramatic acts and that such acts offer unsurpassed opportunities to practice and develop these cognitive skills. The player becomes someone else, an invented figure, at the same time as he or she simultaneously will be him- or herself.
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When participating in different forms of dramatic acts one can experience both oneself and the others on different levels. Outside the world of the dramatic play there will be a one-to-one relationship in a meeting with another person. Being in role means that these meeting points are doubled; this is aesthetic doubling. The doubling situation occurs because the person acting is both himself and the role. To enter the fictive universe contributes to the same; one is both part of the fiction and the real world at the same time.
This is exactly what Szatkowski , p. In other words, they are participants and spectators at the same time, both audience and actors. There will be an impression that whatever happens here and now, it is I who makes it happen. Everyone in the play is audience to each other at the same time as being part of the play. Instead of acting in person, physically, an avatar materializes the players role. This means the player stands on the outskirts and can observe and evaluate his own figure.
The interaction will be on at least three different levels: what one experiences in playing the role, what one experiences together with the other roles and, finally, the interaction between oneself and the role, holding the two worlds in mind at the same time. Therefore, it is not only the notion of living through the role that is of importance, but just as well becoming and being the role. If by this Juul claims this to be an antagonism, I have difficulties in seeing this antagonism. From my dramaturgic point of view, the first aspect has to do with living through the role, and can easily be related to the ludological thinking that it is the commission or task itself that fascinates the player as himself.
I think it is exactly the combination of the two that carries them away. During the digital role-play, the ordinary boy and girl have become part of the game by taking roles and taking an active part in playing. In other words, they are not trained actors. This is similar to the genre of performance. This implies that he or she is not making a role-gestalt of psychological depth, but is rather rehearsing fragments of temporary identities. During these meetings, the different perspectives can together communicate an enlightening, ambiguous and pluralistic perspective.
Indeed, it can be argued, that pictures, animations and sounds, etc. All artistic expressions are equal and have approximately the same expressive importance. This corresponds with the aesthetics of theatre and is, in addition, one of the reasons for examining digital games with dramaturgic terminology.
Examining and understanding these role-plays as drama and theatre can help us see and understand the interaction, and thereby the learning models, constituted between the different participants of the communicative process from a new perspective. The theoretical position we take will have a great effect on what possible learning outcome we will look and argue for. Many researchers have pointed out that it makes no sense to ask if we can learn from digital games, but that the question should rather be, what can we learn? From my point of view, the question why is of equal importance.
What can the phenomenon in itself offer as a means of understanding and learning and why is it so? Cognitive processes have been emphasized with the focus on problem solving, metacognition, cooperation abilities, game literacy and computer literacy, among others. Even if the digital role-plays cannot be said to be fully constructed by an Aristotelian dramaturgy, one can still claim they have many similarities with this form. If the recipient is in addition the player, the same can be said about the digital role-plays, except that these do not have a linear structure, but have a spatial organization Murray, , p.
Instead of a beginning, a middle and an ending, as found in Aristotelian dramaturgy, we find ourselves in a constant middle. In the Aristotelian theory, the plot will follow a linear, cause — effect, logical curve of tension. The story is from the exposition logically united and motivated towards a climax that points to a decomposition of the conflict.
The difference is that in these games we will always proceed to new conflicts. Szatkowski argues that theatre in its classic dramatic form 19 The classic dramatic form is as well known as the Aristotelian dramaturgy. We are going to believe in the fiction and we are dragged into the fictional universe that occurs on the stage, a universe that is supposed to look like the real world being portrayed.
Even if other narrative forms have come and gone, this form has survived, perhaps because it offers empathy, dramatic tension and redemption. We are presented with a manageable world in which everything is noticeable and controlled by the theatrical interpretation of life itself Szatkowski, Even if the members of the audience in these role-plays have become co-actors, they can only control the development to a certain extent through different possible choices and contingencies that the game-master has built in. Can this still be called a genuine interaction? My opinion is that this dramaturgic form creates an interaction where, through lack of willpower, one is controlled by the plot and the figures, and where one lives through the plot in a way that prevents one stepping backwards and critically analysing what is witnessed.
Aristotle calls this catharsis. My conception of catharsis is the emotional purification one experiences when one identifies with the plot and characters in the play and obtains a form of climax in living through what happens to the protagonist. The theatre is important because from a distance it shows us that we have been captured. It is the same notion of distance that can be seen in epic dramaturgy and that, from my point of view, could be utilized in epistemic games, for instance. The opposite can also be said: that by taking on a role and being both oneself and the role, one is able to identify oneself with the role and critically reflect upon what is experienced when being in the role to an even greater extent than one is a member of an audience.saubrigjunnopens.gq/ninth-square.php
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Gregory Bateson defines the function of the ego as a process in which the individual is capable of separating between different levels of communication. This means that they can separate between different communicative forms both in the self itself and between self and others. Erling Lars Dale , p.
The primary processes are characterized by subconsciousness. The secondary processes are organizational activities that are characterized by dimensions of time, logical judgement, decision making and critical thinking. Knowledge and understanding are reckoned to be secondary processes. See Allern, Play, drama and narratives are characterized by the combination of both primary and secondary mental processes; I think the same about digital role-plays.
The childs intention of being immersed in a role is only possible when the child temporarily puts him- or herself on the sidelines and suspends the rules of common logic. Educational drama has as its basis the wish to merge fiction and reality in a here-and-now situation. When building meaning is contextualized, the meaning of the communication is changed when the context is changed. When play invites one to see that contexts are created, one can also see that contexts can be changed Bateson, , p. These plays allow participants to evolve practices that draw both on the experience of everyday life and the experience of being immersed in the fiction.
Through imagination and transformation the player will experience and become a co-creator and the gaming situation can thus be a context of learning which encourages the players actively to engage, reflect, rehearse and make choices. He speaks about play in general, but the same can be said about playing digital games.
In many ways they contain all these functions at the same time, even if the main focus will be on playing the role as well as possible. It is a common assumption in drama theory that the participants in a dramatic fiction in their communication process switch between being an audience and being the performers. This offers a potentiality for metacognition in being able to reflect in and out of role. The aesthetic doubling I have been writing about can be said to create both distance and reflection.
It is also used to distort familiar, routine conceptions by applying distancing devices — to make the familiar strange. Chaim divides this basic principle of distance, which he defines as the awareness of fiction, into three components: tacit knowing, volition and perception as unreal. Being both part of the dramatic fiction and at the same time fully aware of what some drama theorists call metaxis : holding two worlds in mind at the same time.
Augusto Boal proposes the same term to express the experience in which the participants in a dramatic process partake actively in two different and autonomous worlds, the real and the fictional. This means that, on the one hand, the player is fully involved emotionally in the play, but at the same time is able to observe the self from the outside when taking on a role and playing a part in a fiction. This double notion implies that one is able to reflect critically upon what is going on at the same time as one is playing an active part.
Instead, Brecht wanted theatre to show that it is theatre, so that the audience would pause to reflect critically upon what was going on. This should, on another level, influence the spectators to go out and change society. The concept of distance can make the game become the object of theoretical analysis and adaptation. But this fiction is not false; it is not a lie. It has a cognitive purpose. It is a way of looking at the environment that complements the actual world and, in so doing, it provides us with a new perspective on it.
If we put the two together, the actual and the fictional, our understanding of the world will change.
Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget
We have learned and thereby we have improved our cognitive abilities in highly significant ways. By being both oneself and the role, one is able, as oneself, to reflect on what happens when one is in a role and thereby to reach a level of metacognition. They can become more aware of themselves as learners and be able to transfer what is experienced here and now to new situations. Transfer is defined as the ability to extend what has been learned in one context to new contexts Byrnes, In this article I have argued for bringing dramaturgic theories into the digital role-play research field in order to investigate and discuss some implications for understandings of interaction and learning.
An intense debate is raging about digital games and whether they can be regarded as forms of art. Despite this discussion, digital role-plays might be developed that consider content as well as artistic value, and games that are both innovative and experimental. If this is going to be realized, the game producers and the game creators can, among other perspectives, use dramaturgic thinking and theory. They have the possibility to take into consideration aspects such as figure, plot, space, time, interaction, fiction, distance, dramatic tense and contract and discuss how these influence each other.
Dramaturgic analysis and dramaturgic models can be useful tools for the game developers, but not as a dogmatic postulate that closes down more than it opens up. Such a tool would ideally have an initial function as a tool box. This will be useful even if the game is considered first of all as a game. This is what makes dramaturgic model thinking useful both for game developers and for the field of research and analysis.
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In addition, this implies many pedagogic consequences. We can create serious games that utilize the inherent potentiality of joy and motivation as a didactic tool. My theoretical frame-work is derived from a dramaturgic position. This does not mean that I consider ludology and narratology to be without current interest as insightful ways of understanding the phenomenon, but rather the opposite way around.
My main point of view is that all three theoretical positions are relevant and make important contributions to understanding the phenomenon, and that they are complementary rather than mutually exclusive. In addition, it may be suitable for the purpose not only to clearly divide between what is role-play and what is the surrounding world, but at the same time to examine the phenomenon as so multifaceted that it can be understood and analysed from different theoretical perspectives.
The Effect of Drama on the Creative Imagination of Children in Different Age Groups
The theoretical framing I have used in this paper is taken primarily from the classical Aristotelian dramaturgic model, but it also refers to modern and postmodern thinking. In addition, I have examined briefly some dramaturgic models to see what kind of interaction occurs in the meeting point between game and player. Still, it can be said that as long as the Aristotelian dramaturgy remains in its hegemonic position according to the construction and structure, players are manipulated by the pre-programmed simulations.
The player is being controlled into and entertained by fictions that are, to a certain extent, predetermined, without reflecting on where this comes from, who created them and what is the purpose. In contrast to traditional stories, the fictions and simulations open up countless representations where alternative scenarios can be tested. In serious games production, there is a potential in producing games for children that are both pedagogic and entertaining, although such games will benefit from being produced to focus on both form and content and the story and figures will have to be interesting, challenging and exciting enough to motivate the pupils.
Going in and out of roles, playing with and experiencing different imagined worlds, reflecting in-role and out-of-role can stimulate a wide variety of cognitive processes. The future will show if the potential of this, especially in serious games, can be exploited to a higher extent as emancipation rather than preservative. Oppgrader til nyeste versjon av Internet eksplorer for best mulig visning av siden. Hopp til bunn-navigering. English Norsk. Frigi tilgang. Introduction Historical background The dramaturgic perspective Narratology and ludology versus dramaturgy Conclusion References.
Introduction During the spring of the first Norwegian white paper on digital games was released, published by the Norwegian Parliament 1 Stortingsmelding nr. The dramaturgic perspective Instead, it is my premise that we can say digital role-plays are means of a theatrical practise, or, rather, have so many common features with drama and theatre that dramaturgic concepts and theory can be used in their analysis.
Drama and Intelligence a Cognitive Theory
Narratology and ludology versus dramaturgy Even if narratology and dramaturgy have much in common for instance, both empasize fiction and the essence of fiction , there are important differences between these two theoretical positions. The theory of dramaturgy The theory of dramaturgy most often reflects the way in which a drama 8 This can refer to both theatre and film is built or constructed. What is a digital role-play? The connection between theatrical fiction, dramatic fiction and fiction in digital role-plays Fictions, due to this topic, can be divided into three types, with different levels of integrated interaction; the theatrical, the dramatic and the fiction found in digital role-plays.
Digital role-play as a dramatic narrative: A dramaturgic approach A dramaturgic approach will, among other factors, take into consideration the spatial conception as it is used in the temporary science of theatre. The dramaturgy in digital role-plays emphasizing figure, plot, fiction and interaction If our purpose is to gain deeper insight into the world of digital role-plays through the notion of dramaturgic theories, it is natural to select a few terms as tools for analysis.
An epistemological and pedagogical approach to dramaturgic models and digital role-plays Examining and understanding these role-plays as drama and theatre can help us see and understand the interaction, and thereby the learning models, constituted between the different participants of the communicative process from a new perspective.
Conclusion In this article I have argued for bringing dramaturgic theories into the digital role-play research field in order to investigate and discuss some implications for understandings of interaction and learning. Aristoteles Om diktekunsten , translated by Sam. Ledsaak, Oslo, Tanum. Allern, T. Drama og kommunikasjonsteori. Bateson, G. Ben-Chaim, D. Bentley, E. Bolton, G. Drama as Education. An argument for placing drama at the centre of the curriculum.
Harlow: Longman. New Perspectives on Classroom Drama. Byrnes, J. Cognitive development and learning in instructional contexts. Courtney, R. Drama and Intelligence, a cognitive theory. Dale, E. Pedagogikkens grunnlag i det moderne samfunn. Oslo: Gyldendal. Ellingsen, E. Retrieved Eriksson, S.
Drama and intelligence: a cognitive theory
Distance and Awareness of Fiction — Exploring the Concepts. Fine, Gary Alan Shared Fantasy. Chicago: University of Chicago. Frasca, Gonzalo Simulation versus Narrative: Introduction to Ludology. In: Wolf, M. P and Perron, B. Frasca, G. Electronic book review. Gadamer, H. Gee, J. Are Video Games Good for Learning? Goffman, E. Encounters: Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction.
New York: Penguin. In: S. Juul, J. Kowzan, T. Simon Pleasance. Diogenes Lehmann, N. Theatrical Virtuality — Virtual Theatricality.
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