Appropriately designed embedded process monitors can help bridge both upward in the hierarchy to complex circuitry and downward to the properties of the constituent components and to the silicon manufacturing line data. Such monitors may also be used for model-to-hardware correlation of circuit design and timing tools. Voltage monitors track dynamic fluctuations in on-chip local power supply voltage.
Fault Detection and Design For Testability of CMOS Logic Circuits
Temperature monitors are used for directly measuring silicon temperature and can detect the hot and cold spots on the chip. Design considerations of these process, voltage and temperature PVT monitors, and their applications in debug and in silicon process tuning for optimum power and performance are described. CMOS chips are designed to function over the published tolerances of circuit components and over the range of specified environmental conditions.
Electrical tests are defined to cover the range of operating conditions such as power supply voltage and temperature over which any chip may need to function. The data collected are analyzed to isolate factors influencing chip yield and performance.
Understanding the various sources of variations and their characterization are therefore important components of electrical testing. Efforts are made to maximize yield by accommodating anticipated sources of variations in chip design and by minimizing their impact with continuous improvements in the manufacturing process.
Fault Detection and Design For Testability of CMOS Logic Circuits | SpringerLink
Electrical tests are conducted during manufacturing for verification of all functions of individual CMOS chips and systems. In logic testing, test vectors are applied to inputs, and output responses are compared with expected results. Memory tests are conducted by writing and reading each individual cell in all arrays.
Design for testability DFT features incorporated in chip design help improve test efficiency and facilitate debug. Scribe-line tests of circuit components during silicon manufacturing, on-chip process, voltage and temperature monitors, and characterization and modeling of the aggregate behavior of the chip provide physical insight and assist rapid failure diagnostics and resolution.
Adaptive testing methods for managing silicon process variations and yield enhancement are becoming increasingly important with shrinking design and profit margins in chips manufactured in advanced CMOS technologies.
Long-term reliability and operating margins to guarantee continued performance within specifications over the lifetime of CMOS chips are established during test. Models describing various degradation mechanisms in MOSFET and wire interconnect properties over time are provided by the silicon manufacturer and often included in circuit design tools to ensure adequate design margins.
Testability and redundancy techniques for improved yield and reliability of CMOS VLSI circuits
Models for failure rates of silicon process-induced defects are generated by accelerated stress testing of a representative sample of chips. Please let us if you would like us to link to or post your design. Back to Introduction Sub-Table of Contents. Organization of This Document For the most part, we assume that your are somewhat familiar with basic electronics and your intended application - be it for photography, measurement, or entertainment.
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