Note: the bar segments represent elements of the Theil index, specifically the population weight times the ratio of average sector pay to country average pay times the log of the same ratio. Thus, above-average-pay sectors show positive values and those with below average pay show negative values.unfriterrithi.gq/spy-apps-for-galaxy-note-7.php
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The three large bars rising above the zero line are, in order, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong and the figure illustrates their dominant role in the rise of inequality in China. Theil's T is the sum of the bar values for that year. Data from China State Statistical Yearbook. Of particular note is the fact that the relative contribution of Beijing—which is not a coastal city nor a primary centre for the production of goods for export—continued to rise even after the diffusion of economic growth caused the relative shares of Guangdong and Shanghai to tail-off in the later s and early s.
This is surely due in part to the construction boom attendant on the Olympics, and it illustrates the extent to which financial forces may be coming to dominate the inter-regional pattern of relative incomes inside China. In most of Latin America, large-scale urbanization, globalization and specifically the internationalization of finance occurred decades back.
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In the s and s, countries found themselves afflicted by the closely related twin scourges of negative growth and adverse terms-of-trade shocks, above all the debt crisis. Thus, they moved up a downward-sloping relationship between inequality and income, even as the relationship itself shifted out. In Mexico and Brazil, as Calmon et al. It is reasonable to infer that import-substituting industrialization worked to reduce the very high inequalities associated with traditional Latin American economic dualism and that later structural change in favour of the export-oriented growth model would again be characterized by a more unequal income structure.
However, the short-term movement of inequality in the transition between these two models is clearly governed by the same forces that generated macroeconomic and industrial crises in the first place. Mexico and Brazil in this period thus also illustrate the simple relationship between pay inequality in industry and the rate of economic growth. When growth fell short of that threshold, inequality tended to increase. Figure 6 illustrates this relationship with annual data for the two countries.
For countries in this situation, coping with rising inequality is largely a matter of restoring internal growth so that the absorption of a growing labour force can resume. But it must also be, partly, a matter of more stable global financial governance, so long as the country remains exposed to external shocks. Note: the figures illustrate the strong negative relationship between growth and inequality in two important middle-income countries. Vertical unit: percentage change in GDP. Inequality calculations from national data sets.
Source: Calmon et al. The case of the Russian Federation was closely analysed via a data set for the years — developed by Krytynskaia from original sources in Goskomstat and reported on in Galbraith et al. The dramatic increase came in , with the implementation of shock therapy, led by price liberalization. It resulted in a massive collapse of the relative position both of farmers and manufacturing workers, as well as of the non-commercial sectors, such as health and education, previously supported by the state.
In their place rise the leading sectors of the new Russia: energy and finance, and the city of Moscow as a world city in a country otherwise mired in post-communist depression. This situation became so extreme that by the end of the century, the lightly populated West Siberian oil-and-gas regions of Tiumen and Khanty-Mansy had become major sources of the inequality of Russian incomes generally, while the conflict regions of the southern Caucasus had fallen far below the rest of the country in reported relative income.
In the USA, pay inequality in manufacturing rose under the demand shock of tight monetary policy and a high dollar in the early s—a classic backward movement on a downward-sloping Kuznets curve. This movement was repeated in the recession of the late s. Inequality in pay, particularly within manufacturing, then declined through much of the following decade, as the economy recovered and eventually reached full employment. Figure 7 illustrates the close relationship between inequality in the structure of manufacturing pay, in the USA, and the rate of open unemployment.
Note: the movement of pay inequality in manufacturing and of the open unemployment rate are closely associated in the USA, probably for the simple reason that weekly hours and earnings are more variable and strongly pro-cyclical for lower paid workers. Recessions are indicated by grey lines. As Figure 7 shows, pay inequality in the USA declined through the end of the millennium.
Income inequality did not; indeed income inequality rose notoriously in the boom years. The two measures can be reconciled by noting that income includes a large component not derived from work, but rather drawn directly or indirectly from the capital markets: stock options, capital gains and also the salaries paid to executives in firms financed in the start-up phase from equity issuance rather than cash flow.
It would therefore not be surprising to find a relationship between income inequality and asset prices as measured on the capital markets. In the last few years of the millennium, rapid growth driven by the technology bubble produced increasing income inequality in America. This was a move up an upward-sloping segment of the Kuznets curve, onto which the USA had stumbled in the transition to an economy largely centred on technology and finance. Geographically, this increase was exceptionally concentrated. Removing the income growth of just 15 counties of neutralizes the entire increase in inequality between counties.
Figure 8 illustrates the close relationship between inequality of taxable incomes in the USA and valuations on the stock market. The correlation with the NASDAQ index of technology-related stocks is especially strong through , thereafter the largest income gains show more clearly in other indices. Other explanations for rising US income inequality—relating to technology, skill, trade and so forth—seem largely redundant. Note: left scale, thick line: the between-county component of income inequality, annual data, calculations from Local Area Personal Income Statistics.
Source: Galbraith and Hale The political systems of the world in the final third of the 20th century can be classed in groups ranging from communist states to social democracies, to capitalist democracies and to authoritarian regimes and dictatorships of the right and the extreme right, including military governments and states actively torn by civil war. The s and s were a time of polarization, with a spread of military governments in Latin America, Africa and Asia in strong opposition to communism, then in power in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, North Korea, Vietnam and Cuba.
In the final years of the century, there has been a convergence towards capitalist democracy, often within a neoliberal policy framework. Thus, world history in these decades provides a rich field in which to search for systematic relationships between political regime and the level and change of inequality over time. Political scientists in recent years have worked to develop a number of classification schemes of regime type, surveyed in Hsu Democracy is therefore conceptualized as an extreme outcome—the opposite of dictatorship—rather than as an ideological middle ground, while communist, fascist and military dictatorships are grouped together as authoritarian.
Underlying this are implicit preoccupations with human rights and the rule of law and perhaps the notion that representative democracy represents a high point of political achievement. Yet, given the extreme differences of ideology between communist and anti-communist authoritarians on matters related specifically to economic inequality, scales constructed in this way are ill-suited to discriminating between the effects of regime type on inequality. It is therefore not surprising that the empirical results obtained so far in this area are weak.
An alternative approach would allow the data to determine whether mean inequality measures for different regime types differ significantly from the general mean, after controlling for ostensibly independent characteristics such as the level of national income and population growth.
This requires a categorical or qualitative data set, rather than a cardinal or ordinal scale. Hsu has developed a comprehensive qualitative data set of regime type and regime change for the countries in the UTIP inequality data universe. These data permit us to classify practically all countries according to their place in the group structure discussed above and to evaluate movements of inequality associated with changes of regime type.
Galbraith et al. Communist regimes, social democracies and Islamic republics enjoy ed significantly lower inequality than would be predicted by their income level, region and other controls. Current European colonies in this data, mostly Caribbean enjoy less inequality than other developing regions with similar economic and social characteristics. Dictatorships and conservative democracies showed higher inequality than one would otherwise expect. The results were generally robust across various specifications, though it is important to recognize that the inclusion of controls for geographic region substantially reduces the amount of variance that the political variables explain.
It would be surprising if the ordinary back-and-forth of partisan competition within one or two regime types—multiparty democracy whether conservative or social democratic—made a large difference to national inequality measures. Since political parties are often numerous and their names idiosyncratic Japan's Liberal Democratic Party, for instance , the task of making a systematic appraisal of the effect of ordinary changes in government within a generally democratic regime is exceptionally arduous, even where, as with UTIP, annual inequality data are available.
Nevertheless, some work has been done in this area. Galbraith and Garza-Cantu categorized Latin American governments from the s through the s by the extent of their commitment to a populist agenda and were able to show that populist governments throughout the region were frequently able to bring measures of inequality down during those years.
Given their support for unionization, for food subsidies and for higher minimum wages, this effect should not be surprising. Nor should the flouting of the external constraint that populism usually entailed make it a surprise that populist policy regimes never lasted very long. Calmon et al. They found that the populist moments in modern Mexican history—the government of Echeverria and that of Lopes Portillo after the discovery of oil in —were associated with strong growth and declining inequality, for which the price was paid in International Monetary Fund programmes and the debt crisis only a little bit later on.
Worldwide many populist episodes ended violently. Thus, the cycle of inequality, reform, violence and repression that characterized those years. Since the return of multiparty democracy in all of Latin America and much of the rest of the world in the modern period, two general observations may be made.
First, the new democracies lack the redistributionist commitments of their democratic predecessors; either the left has mellowed or the neoliberal policy order constrains choices in ways that the previous system did not. The initial conditions of much higher inequality than were observed before the dark years of repression have not been fully reversed nor is it likely that they will be. Nevertheless, some progress has been made, particularly since the high-water mark of the neoliberal ascendancy passed in the mids.
Giovannoni provides a treatment of the relationship between structural change, personal income distribution and the functional distribution of income, which is defined as the labour and conversely, capital share of income in total gross domestic product GDP. Unfortunately, despite the central importance of this theme to the history of political economy, usable data for cross-country and time-series comparison remain rare and for practical purposes restricted to member states of the OECD.
Nevertheless, several interesting points emerge. The wage share in the USA, though initially lower, has remained approximately constant during the same period and is now higher than in the Eurozone. While coverage of developing countries is not a strength of the OECD data, the information for Mexico and Turkey indicates that for these countries, labour shares in total GDP are much lower and much more volatile than in the richer countries and prone to decline sharply in times of economic crisis, as in Mexico after or Turkey after and These results suggest that in at least some circumstances, the functional shares and the structure of earnings distributions are closely related and that both are quite closely related to macroeconomic conditions.
Economic crises tend to raise unemployment, shift the share of income towards capital and worsen the distribution of pay. In a final analysis, this cannot be greatly surprising. A financial shock, such as an international move to high interest rates, is a tax on debtors for the benefit of creditors.
It will deplete effective demand, curtail employment and also cut hours worked disproportionately for those at the bottom of the pay scale. All these adverse phenomena should move together, and evidently they do. Conversely in boom times employment, the wage share and distribution of earnings all improve. In this context, it is worth noting again that while US income inequality rose sharply in the late s, this is not true for inequalities in the structure of American pay : pay inequalities declined as the economy moved towards full employment and as the low-wage workforce was able to increase weekly hours and supplement earnings with overtime.
The course comes with a significant political economy bias and thus a basic familiarity with international macroeconomics is helpful. This course examines the origins, development, and current status of theoretical inquiry in world politics. Instructor: Michael Byers michael. Space is the final frontier for humanity and therefore international relations.
Space sees considerable cooperation, including between the United States and Russia on the International Space Station. Yet Space is also increasingly militarized, through the heavy use of Earth imaging and communications satellites and the related development of anti-satellite weapons. Space is an important part of the global economy, involving s of billions of dollars of activity annually. Now, rapid technological developments such as reusable rockets are opening the door to Space mining and the eventual colonization of other planets.
All these developments create challenges for national and international policy makers. They also cast new light onto the discipline of international relations and its traditional problems and theories. Nuclear weapons have been in the news often in the past year, especially in the Korean Peninsula. Why exactly is there concern and should one worry about nuclear weapons being used in that area or elsewhere? What are the risks more broadly associated with nuclear weapons?
This course will help students develop a comprehensive understanding of the multiple risks associated with nuclear weapons. Among the areas analyzed in this course are the risk of nuclear weapons use during and outside times of war, health and environmental risks from the manufacture, testing, and use of nuclear weapons, the risks associated with nuclear energy, economic risks, and risks to democratic practice.
By analyzing historical and contemporary case studies, reading papers representing diverse disciplines and perspectives, and watching relevant documentary and fictional films, students will gain the necessary knowledge to actively participate in current nuclear and security debates. This course will critically explore the discourses and policies related to the programs that fall under these broad policy areas, addressing the operational, analytical and ideological dimensions of efforts to transform conflict affected societies.
The lectures, discussions and assignments will equip you with an understanding of the various conceptual models which help us understand peace and the various approaches which have been applied to resolve and transform conflict and violence. By the end of the course, you will find that you have been provided with an analytical tool box which can be used to explore issues related to peace-building in theory and practice—tools which can be used in this course, other courses related to international aid, and potentially in your future professional lives as policy makers, aid workers etc.
Instructors: Jenny Peterson jenny. Through this project-based, multidisciplinary course, students from different disciplines will work together to explore a variety of humanitarian issues and how they can apply the skills from their different disciplines to develop a sustainable technical solution that will contribute to their resolution. The overall goals of this course are to introduce students to humanitarianism from social, political and technical perspectives, to explore how to make efficient and appropriate use of the technical design process in humanitarian relief settings, to provide them with the tools and resources necessary to pursue humanitarian programming or other related fields as a career, and incorporate humanitarian-thinking into their work.
An outline of humanitarian issues and failures of aid as well as critical analytical perspectives will be covered. This framework will be incorporated into the three main technical modules. The technical modules will cover issues related to energy security, infrastructure, water, sanitation and hygiene WASH , and involve a multidisciplinary design project. This course examines the evolving relationship between Multinational Corporations MNCs and states in the modern era, evaluating the perceived benefits and costs of foreign direct investment in a number of selected countries, regions, and industries.
Our primary objectives are to assess the impact of MNCs on the politics, economies, and societies of states, and to evaluate the effectiveness or desirability of various attempts to control, limit, and regulate MNC behaviour. Special attention is paid to countries, industries, and practices where the potential for exploitation and conflict is greatest.
Instructor: Richard Price richard. Can the world really be made a morally better place? What could you or other actors do about it and how? Students will examine global advocacy campaigns to understand why some efforts at transnational moral change succeed while others fail. Claiming that a global advocacy campaign is a success implies we agree it is a morally good thing — but many global challenges resist solution because they involve conflicting moral imperatives.
Should interventions have been undertaken in Libya or Kosovo? The second part of the course will engage you with different traditions of moral thought in order to provide you with the tools to make judgments about important moral dilemmas.
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Issues will then be examined in the third part of the course, such as: Who should be allowed to immigrate and where? Is torture ever justifiable, and what constitutes torture? Who should pay for global climate change mitigation? This course will introduce students to the theory, evolution, and practice of International Peacekeeping. The course will explore the development of peacekeeping within and outside the United Nations system, and how peacekeeping has evolved as an instrument of conflict management.
The diplomatic, organizational, and operational elements of peacekeeping will be examined in detail, with a view to evaluating lessons learned, reform efforts, and the challenges facing current and future operations. Students will be expected to apply this knowledge to evaluate current and future conflicts and peacekeeping operations.
Case studies will be used to illustrate course themes. This course analyzes the politics of global sustainability and justice, striving for critical thought that integrates both rigorous analysis and ethical reflection. The focus is on the consequences of political discourses, institutions, and power struggles for global ecological change, taking an interdisciplinary approach that does not assume a background in international relations.
How, in what ways, and to what extent is global environmental politics making a difference for advancing global sustainability and justice? How and why is this changing over time? What does this suggest for the future? To answer these questions, the course analyzes topics such as the causes and consequences of unsustainable development, the ecological shadows of consumption, the power of environmentalism as a social movement, the social justice consequences of climate change, the contradictions of technology, the effectiveness of international agreements, the rising importance of city-level governance, the eco-business of multinational corporations, and the value of certification and eco-consumerism.
The course concludes by assessing the merits of various pathways toward environmental sustainability and social justice. Instructor: Allen Sens asens mail. Subjects such as ethics, deterrence, disarmament and arms control, testing, and delivery systems will be covered in detail. In this course, a special emphasis will be placed on the political issues and debates and the scientific methodologies and verification practices associated with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty CTBT.
This course will analyze various aspects of terrorism in both the international and domestic communities including the structure and dynamics of terrorism, terrorist weapons, strategies and tactics, their use of the media, and theories of counter-terrorism are all covered. With its radical interpretations of the Koran, the Muslim holy text, Islamism calls upon its supporters to engage in acts of violence against those in the West and elsewhere who are said to suppress and humiliate Muslims and seek the annihilation of Islam and Islamic civilization.
We will seek to explain why Islamists commit acts of violence, draw parallels between Islamism and other forms of terror in the West. This course examines the impact and implications of the rise of China and its engagement with the world, drawing upon both historical and contemporary cases, as well as international relations theory. There are three goals in the course. The second goal is to learn the analytical tools to formulate competing explanations of foreign policy behavior.
In this seminar, we explore together some of the great debates in political science and some of the greatest works in the field. This first course focuses on foundational works in the subfields of international relations and comparative politics. We start off by asking big questions on the nature and meaning of politics. We then spend a few weeks focusing on the origins and nature of the state, in its international and domestic aspects.
These foundations lead us to three critical debates: the debate on the causes and legacy of Western colonization, the debate on peace and cooperation between states, and the debate on the stability of the global economic system. The next section of the seminar focuses on the nature of democracy and its inner workings.
We also explore the great methodological debate that lies at the core of all political science research. The last 3 weeks of the seminar are devoted to selected applied debates that like at the intersection of international politics and domestic politics including: development and poverty, globalization and populism, China and the future of the Liberal International Order, climate change and social transformation. This seminar aims to expose students not just to key questions and issues, but also to the diversity of approaches that exist in political science.
We will strive to give voice to alternative views and to contrast the whole range of available theories, from realism to post-modernism and feminist approaches. Furthermore, the seminar attempts to apply the key debates to all continents and to contrast purely Western views of the world to Asian, African, Latin American and Aboriginal views. In particular, the first couple of weeks contrasts the classic Western approaches to politics and to the state with classic Chinese approaches.
In the end, this demanding seminar gives significant exposure to the contents and process of political science. As a student-run seminar, it also aims at creating long-term relationships among Honours students. The course examines key problems of the Canadian constitution, with special emphasis on federalism and the Charter of Rights.
Its purpose is to encourage philosophical discussion of Canadian constitutional problems, while placing them in historical and comparative perspective. Major political, economic, environmental, and social challenges in Canada intersect in cities; economic development, housing and homelessness, transportation planning, and environmental sustainability are all subject to the policies and investment priorities of city governments.
Though municipalities in Canadian federalism lack independent constitutional status and confront limits to their legal, fiscal, and political autonomy, increasingly they are critical actors in major policy debates and are generators of policy innovations and governance reforms. We will examine different theories of urban power and governance, and the ability of different theoretical approaches to explain the emergence of urban policy problems and their various solutions. The focus of the course is on cities in Canada, with a particular focus on Vancouver in the second half of the course when we examine various urban policy issues.
Our fundamental aim will be to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how, why, and with what consequences, urban governments and their partners develop and implement policy. This is a quantitative research workshop in Canadian and Comparative Politics. Students will conduct original quantitative analysis of political data. Some data will be at the level of individuals while other data may pertain to countries or time periods. The course consists of 3-week modules where students, in small groups, will: first, carefully study the methodology of an existing research article; second, plan an application of that methodology to a different data source; and third, conduct that analysis and present it to the class.
Instructor : Gerald Baier gerald. The mandate of this course is to familiarize students with both contemporary and enduring themes, methods and controversies in the study of Canadian politics and government. The course will consider institutions and processes as well as Canadian political culture and behaviour.
As the core course, it is necessarily broad in focus, but some attempt will be made to identify patterns in the study of Canadian politics. Topics discussed will include; federalism and the constitution, parliamentary government, political parties, electoral behaviour, regionalism and nationalism, interest groups and social movements, bureaucracy, courts, rights and Canadian political thought.
This seminar investigates national institutions and policy making in the US. We will make comparisons between the US and other countries, especially Canada, and assess the barriers to constructive action in an increasingly polarized political system. Finally, we will examine the Trump presidency as a critical period for American political institutions. Research papers may use quantitative or qualitative methods, may deal with an institutional or policy topic including foreign policy , may focus on the U. S alone or in a comparative context, and may focus on earlier or more recent periods including the Trump administration.
Students whose main interests are in comparative politics, international relations, or political theory are encouraged to select paper topics that relate to those interests. Students are encouraged and assisted to design their papers, if they wish, as first stages of potential MA- or PhD-thesis projects. This course, the first of a two-course sequence that also includes POLI , focuses on the design and analysis of sample surveys, which are both the cornerstone of a large and growing industry devoted to public opinion polling, and far and away the most commonly used evidence in studies of political behavior.
In taking it students will: 1 become familiar enough with survey methodology to be intelligent consumers of work that uses it; 2 develop the ability to design, field, and analyze their own survey, as well as report on its result; 3 learn to think critically about whether and how to employ these methodologies in their own research, and; 4 learn to think both appreciatively and critically about specific examples of social scientific research that uses one or both of these designs.
It covers many of the central questions that animate a very large scholarly literature. Topics include: both foundational and current studies of citizen vote choice, general theories of political opinion formation and change, debates about the quality of democratic choice among individuals and the public as a whole, claims about the role of the mass media, and the relationship between public opinion and public policy. Discussion of the assigned reading material will consider the theoretical perspectives employed and the assumptions inherent in these theories, the strengths and weaknesses of the research design and methodologies employed, and the implications of these empirical results for democratic theory.
The Comparative Political Economy of Development. This course provides a graduate level introduction to the comparative study of development. While Asia is often viewed as developing rapidly, sub-Saharan Africa is often treated as a failure, and Latin America is commonly perceived as a mixed case. The first part of this course begins with a brief overview of how development is conceptualized and measured. We then consider and discuss existing explanations of developmental success and failure such as the influence of historical legacies, the role of the modern state and political institutions, markets and globalization, structural adjustment, and democracy versus authoritarianism.
The subject of this course is Ethics in Democratic Politics. Throughout the course, we will be investigating five questions:. We will investigate these questions in several important domains of life—friendship, education, work, medicine, law, family, and especially politics in democratic societies. We will also investigate these questions more theoretically, in the hope of developing a solid understanding of what makes wisdom or judgment a crucial component of our lives. Throughout the course, we will be contrasting decision-making that depends on practical wisdom, or judgment, with decision making that depends on following various kinds of rules or responding to external rewards and punishments.
This course examines changes in the structure, role and processes of public management in modern countries. Among the topics examined and researched by students are the power of civil servants, the status of the Weberian welfare state and public management reform. Other important topics are secrecy, data collection for security purposes, and citizen privacy. The course focuses on advanced democracies including EU countries, Canada, the US and Australia but major research essays can examine other countries as required.
Canadian examples are derived from federal, provincial, municipal and Aboriginal governments. A major student obligation is a substantial research essay. The research essays will be presented to the seminar on several occasions as they develop over the term. This course studies the relationship between politics and economics in order to understand the process of late development -both theoretically and empirically. Specifically, we will study questions such as: How important are political institutions to economic development and what role do they play? How does economics affect political institutions and government policies?
Topics include the role of the state in alleviating or exacerbating poverty, the politics of industrial policy and planning and the relationship between institutional change and growth. The methodological orientation of the course is normative and analytical. In the seminars, the conversation is dialectical and critical including self-criticism. Instructor: Chris Erickson chris. Theorizing Settler-Colonialism and Indigenous Politics. This upper-level undergraduate seminar will explore the relationship between Western political theory and the project of settler-colonialism through four lenses: liberalism, Marxism, feminism and anarchism.
The objective of this course is to provide students with tools and experience for conducting policy analysis in support of public sector decisions. Through analyses of real-world policy issues, students will gain experience in problem definition, crafting policy alternatives, and identifying trade-offs among alternatives. The course is more applied than most senior undergraduate and graduate seminars in the department. Emphasis will be placed on developing practical research, analytical, and communication skills to generate and present clear and useful analysis for a client or supervisor.
The course will integrate in-class case studies of organ transplant shortages, graffiti, and distracted driving. What practices, internal or external to the home, render domestic technologies acceptable, intimate, and familiar? What place does domesticity occupy in larger societal trajectories of technologies?
We invite papers drawing on diverse contexts and methodologies. At the same time, there has been a renewed interest in the humanities and social sciences in engaging with many of the same materials at the centre of scientific discussions about the Anthropocene: fossils, minerals, soil, coal, plants, water, and so on. There are roughly three senses of the elemental. In the first sense, elements are discrete chemical entities, like those named and schematised in the Periodic Table of Elements which celebrates its th anniversary this year.
Elemental are the metals and non-metals of specific atomic compositions and weights, arranged and combined in diverse forms. In the second sense, the elemental names the environmental milieu, or material substrate, in which we are irrevocably embedded, in which different forms of life are immersed, enveloped, and take shape.
The third sense of the elemental is the ontological one, the philosophical correlate of the first. Here, the elemental is not a material resource or background, but is a claim about the conditions-of-possibility of being and matter themselves. For an elemental philosophy, there are forces or forms of matter from which every other material is derived; they are the condition and horizon of sensible involvement in the world Engelmann and McCormack, At once, the elemental situates us, embeds us, and is beyond us.
This panel seeks contributions that explore the value and limits of thinking our present elementally. Baskin J. Environmental Values 24 1 : Edwards PN. Boston: MIT Press, Engelmann, S and McCormack D. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 1 Peters JD. Emergent technologies and the implementation of new and innovative models, measures, and systems present rich sites for STS scholars to follow, understand, and intervene on technologies in the making Brey ; Guston As new technologies are implemented in existing biomedical research and healthcare infrastructures, they carry with them great promise to disrupt standards and routine practice as well as improve our understanding of health, illness, and the human body.
Yet as STS scholars have shown, technologies often reproduce and deepen existing disparities Eubanks ; Lee ; Murphy ; Noble ; Sankar et al. Studying how emergent technologies and systems are designed, regenerated, mechanized, commercialized, and integrated offers a window to understand the trajectory of technologies and the racialized, classed, and gendered logic of systems with which they interact. This panel invites empirical contributions that explore how emergent technologies and platforms are constructed, implemented, and standardized in biomedical and healthcare settings.
We particularly are interested in papers that examine the implications of emergent technologies and systems for inequality and health justice. The topic of emotions enters into STS work in diverse way. Baier and Gilligan have offered ground breaking work on the importance of emotionality for feminist critiques of masculine and patriarchal social structures. The relation between emotions and beneficence, caring, and motivation to help have featured centrally in STS scholarship, e. Empathy is frequently called for in clinical work as a means of improving care, e.
Halpern Empathy and sympathy are considered as important for ethnographic work as a means of building trust and rapport, e. This open panel aims for a diverse array of papers on emotions and will consider the following questions:. Baier, Annette C. Epstein, S. The construction of lay expertise: AIDS activism and the forging of credibility in the reform of clinical trials.
Gilligan, Carol, Halpern, J. From idealized clinical empathy to empathic communication in medical care. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 17 2 , Polletta, F. Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements. University of Chicago Press. Putnam, L. Organizations, emotion and the myth of rationality. Emotion in organizations, 1, Reeves, S. Qualitative research methodologies: ethnography. Bmj, , a STS studies suggest that engineers gather heterogeneous entities in their projects J.
Law, M. Callon, L.
The Political Economy of Mountain Java
They make the technology work but also create a world around this technology B. A new world entails the possibility of searching funding and political support, building new social ontology and enacting necessary infrastructure. Each engineer turns out to be a maker of a new world. However, such a picture contradicts the conventional vision. According to this vision, engineers usually rely on the standardized procedures and act as cogs in large technological systems. As such cogs, they tend to be as far as possible from the public discussions of their projects. So, who are the engineers today?
The world-makers or those who perform a set of standard operations as far as possible away from public discussions? Are there cultural differences in such perceptions of engineers? Our section invites all participants who are interested in technical expertise and public role of engineers to make a current snapshot of engineering profession around the world. The first two decades of the twenty-first century have witnessed increasingly complex questions about ethics in biomedical research, health policy, and clinical practice—from the flourishing field of postgenomic research to the rapidly changing world of reproductive biomedicine.
This open panel explores ethical issues in health and biomedicine that are being innovated by and regenerated with STS perspectives. This panel provides renewed attention to how ethics is and can be conceived and constructed by stakeholders involved in shaping and disseminating biomedical knowledge, and it interrogates how differently-situated actors in the biomedical sciences—from researchers and policymakers to those in the clinic—make sense of, define, challenge, and shape what is considered ethical in their work, and the consequences for health delivery and outcomes.
Paper submissions may include, but need not be limited by, questions such as: How do biomedical researchers decide which questions about health need to be addressed? How do they conceptualize risk, and how do they recruit research subjects? What considerations matter to biomedical researchers when they convey their results? How and when do health-care policymakers decide to prioritize certain topics? How do policymakers construct guidelines and rules for health research, and to what extent do they consider the impact of their policymaking on different populations? How, when, and why do clinicians offer health testing, information, and interventions to their patients?
How do clinicians navigate their various ethical obligations and responsibilities in promoting health and health care across population groups? We invite empirical papers from multiple disciplinary perspectives.
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What does STS look like—in its research questions, priorities, and theoretical interlocutors—when race, class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, nationality, migration, citizenship, indigeneity, and blackness, among others, become central problem spaces? Similarly, what does ethnic studies look like when science and technology become fundamental subjects and objects of investigation?
When faced with obdurate systems, social movements often create experimental infrastructures that suggest radical new arrangements of resources, knowledges, and power. While these systems are often materially insufficient to immediately address the full scale of the problems that inspired them, they have the potential to reorganize the conditions that limit what people imagine as possible.
What is the role of small-scale systems in pushing large-scale change? How do designers, developers, and maintainers of small-scale experimental infrastructures imagine the work of scaling up, building out, or strengthening these systems? How do they challenge the limits of time, materiality, and imagination? And how do small-scale infrastructural innovations challenge and reproduce relations of power? In this open panel, we invite scholars and organizers who are working with movement-built infrastructures in a wide array of arenas.
Fundamentally, we are seeking to better understand how projects with incredible potential could scale in ways that change the conditions of possibility in the direction of a wildly different world. By pulling together these examples, we aim to help each other imagine alternative futures beyond what we can currently conceptualize, and develop strategies for getting from here to there. How should STS approach expert domains that, instead of relying on a codified stock of objective knowledge, privilege the subjective?
This panel invites papers about cases including emerging professions and unevenly regulated fields in which experts routinely and explicitly draw on personal experience, beliefs, ethics, and values to make decisions, legitimate their work, and set standards. Such cases depart from many of the core assumptions of STS scholarship on the social production of scientific knowledge.
From the Social Construction of Technology to Actor-Network theory, sociomateriality to infrastructure analysis, human judgment and social interaction are shown by analysts to be crucial in the process and outcome of knowledge production in scientific professions. In most such accounts, analysts reveal that the social production of facts and knowledge is core to a field that is typically—and erroneously—assumed to be objective. Scholars of the professions, too, have tended to presume objectivity as a feature or goal of the standardized bodies of abstract knowledge they describe professionals as applying to particular cases and defending from competitors.
Yet some domains of expert work, like the demedicalized midwifery and nonprofit consulting fields the organizers of this panel study, trouble this assumption with their embrace of the interpretive and the subjective. How might STS contend with knowledge production and standard-setting in these expert domains that do not have uniform goals of objectivity or codified and settled bodies of knowledge? How do other features of expert domains, including codes of ethics and forms of licensure or credentialing, differ in these circumstances?
What challenges are presented for prevailing assumptions in STS about the process of knowledge production or standard-setting by considering expert domains that do not rely on the codified knowledge-producing activities and expectations that characterize the subjects of much STS attention to expertise and the professions? Healthy oceans contribute significantly to combating climate change. However, a lack of ocean scientific knowledge continues to challenge efforts to protect ocean ecosystems. This gap is steadily closed by global initiatives like the International Census of Marine Life programme.
Furthermore, detection methods, observing infrastructures and data management have significantly improved over the past two decades, reconfiguring how oceans are studied and monitored. In many respects, the study and monitoring of the oceans represents a new form of knowledge production. Challenges include producing systemic insights into ocean ecology; working toward industrial-scale production of innovations; providing scientific data to support environmental policy; and operating against the backdrop of a highly research-focused academic system.
These developments are amplified by data scarcity, complicating the command of funding and shaping policies and practices of studying, monitoring and protecting the oceans. This panel invites contributions on the socio-technical, epistemic, geo political, historical and ethical dimension of these developments, including case studies related to global and national policies and practices of ocean science and monitoring.
Which dynamics occur when ocean science becomes even more subject to multiple valuation registers, including those associated with steering efforts toward more interdisciplinary engagement, societal relevance and demands from policy-makers? How do monitoring policies and practices contribute to the scientific representation of the ocean and its manifestation as a site, where different technological innovations compete for scientific legitimacy and marketability? What are key innovations in ocean science and marine technology and how do they shape the policies and practices of the field?
Universalist models of innovation face a crisis of both technical reproducibility and societal support. The geography of innovation is thoroughly unequal. National Innovation Systems or best practice transfer e. Silicon Valley. At the heart of this problem is the persistent inability to seriously include local socio-economic traditions, political cultures, and regional identity into mainstream innovation theory.
We invite contributions incl. How do globally circulating models interrupt or, perhaps, regenerate existing regional identities and institutional orders? What happens when populations reject or subvert innovation initiatives? What alternative imaginations of economic prosperity and epistemic authority do they propose instead? We argue that the successes and failures of innovation policy in regions cannot be explained without taking into account the locally specific understandings of what innovation is, what and who it is for, how it relates to local history and identity, and in which political culture it is embedded — even if, on the face of it, the policy instruments look the same.
The agri-food sector is seeing a tidal wave of innovation. With the backing of venture capital, scientists cum entrepreneurs are deploying new techniques in artificial intelligence, synthetic biology, tissue engineering, digitalization, big data analytics, robotics, and other fields, with the aim of both improving upon and disrupting farming and food production.
4.1. Types of Societies
Papers selected for this open call will draw on case study material to build upon these emergent observations. We are particularly interested in papers that cross fertilize questions and concerns from STS, such as public acceptance of technology, with those of food studies, such as the exceptionalism of food and agriculture. More pointedly, we ask how and to what extent do food and farm tech entrepreneurs engage the specificity of food and farming as organic, biological processes uniquely laden with cultural meaning in their techno-utopian dreams for Anthropocene futures.
At its heart, it shares concerns for subjectivities that are devalued, marginalized or erased through technoscientific practices. This panel re connects reflexively with these ethico-political commitments and sensibilities. We will explore how the disruptive, inventive and re generative potential of FSTS might give rise to new and alternative, if partial and imperfect, worlds of scholarship and living. We want to understand how we can trouble and reinvent our methods and concerns in order to re configure the precarious and unstable worlds in which we live and work.
How can we move our commitments beyond the academy; how must methods and theories change; how might they then reconfigure academia itself? Which novel collaborations, networks and assemblages can we forge; what roles can FSTS research not take? How might we mobilize ambivalences and situated knowledges to connect with worlds inhospitable to them; what challenges and dangers lie therein? Modern finance is highly dependent on technology and scientific research. The interdependency is clearly apparent in the extent to which the financial sector actively supports research in-house, and in university and government institutions.
The relationship is mutually beneficial. Scientists demonstrate the relevance of their work to society through use by financial interests. In turn, financial interests garner legitimacy from the high esteem society bestows on science and scientists. Yet, society also struggles with its modern financial systems at every level: from global economic instability to the equitable allocation of financial resources at the individual level. Often these struggles are tied to changes in scientific knowledge and the mis use of technology.
What new insights are gained by shifting the focus on finance from one of market mechanism and legal obligation to one of science, technology and innovation? How do these new insights expand the options available for improving progress towards higher order societal goals and financial accountability?
In what ways has financial processes become inescapably political due to its close relationship to the politics of science and technology? Film and video have the ability to intersect with history and STS through documentary and animation practice. The purpose of this workshop is to have a dialogue about the practices and uses of film-making and animation in and outside of academia, specifically in the context of history, ethnography and STS.
The format of this is in a round table workshop format. It will commence by asking participants what brings them to the workshop, a few short films will be shown and then a guided discussion will center around these questions. What makes a film academically sound? Where are the sources? What strategies are used to tell the story and is the storytelling successful in its own terms? There are many types of digital storytelling and many different story arcs so this session is inclusive of different forms of storytelling.
How is it made and who is the audience? Is it created for a television or mainstream film context, or youtube? Is it archival documentation? Or is it a DIY video made for immediate distribution to specific communities? Politics are an essential dimension of nearly every case study and conceptual innovation in STS, although, with rare exception, the future of politics and the politics of the future are rarely the topic of rigorous, sustained discussion. The problem though is that this assumption no longer seems to serve scholars looking to ask difficult questions about the future of politics and the politics of the future, which now seem more important than ever.
Whose politics? Which futures? Who or what is actually invited or involved to plan for the future of global and national politics? Submissions about governance, the state, imaginaries, politics, and the future or futures are all welcome in the sessions that populate this panel. Games are flexible epistemic objects, variously constructed as entertainment, military and logistics simulations, communications technologies, scientific apparatuses, cultural artifacts, art, and media.
With a few notable exceptions, however, academic analyses of games and game development practices tend to be the domain of media and cultural studies scholars, which produce vibrant—but disciplinary-inflected—research practices, perspectives, and interpretations.
- Variational Problems in Riemannian Geometry: Bubbles, Scans and Geometric Flows.
- IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:.
- Paper submissions to open panels.
- Mises Daily Articles.
- Selected Publications?
- A political economy of economic restructuring in Vietnam;
After the advent of the robot Pepper, humanoid robots are now living with us in everyday life. Compared with smart home devices, i. Meanwhile, the bodies of the humanoid robots are shaping discourses of sexuality. For example, the Campaign against Sex Robots in the UK thinks sex robots reinforce male domination and sexual exploitation of women and children, while the sex-robot supporter Dr.
Hence, the bodies of the robots are gendered and racial. Although the problematic robotic bodies may serve the gender stereotype, they also have the potential to penetrate heteronormativity. These bodies are replaceable and interchangeable, hence deconstructing our normal assumptions about holistic bodies, that is, a whole organic flesh. The bodies of the humanoid robots queer body norms and thus have the potential to reconceptualize heteronormative norms.
Therefore, the bodies of the humanoid robots are both hope and despair. This panel is calling papers discussing gender, bodies, and robots. We hope to evoke sophisticated conversations in order to review and rethink the politics around the bodies of robots. Does this mean the futures promised by modernity must be pronounced dead? Yes and no. We declare them undead, and ask: how do modern futures linger in the present, casting a shadow on the now?
We invite papers that explore how innovations in science and technology get imagined, taken up, and abandoned; how subjectivities get remade, stretched by allegiances to the past and belief in an inevitable future; how certain bodies get written out of visions of the future based on historical and extant prejudices; and how modernity itself gets experienced as multiple, recursive, and contingent. If we have always already been modern, then how do the ghosts of futures past haunt our uneven present?
A tension between two visions of innovation, one that builds capacity for horizontal public health systems, the other driving high tech vertical technology development, may be impeding global health. Vaccine research and immunization programs might be seen as a sociotechnical assemblage where the public health value of some vaccines is undeniable but their safety, effectiveness and vertical implementation remain wicked problems that divide and prevent progress. Industry demand for fast tracking vaccine development has increased as governments in high, middle and low countries contribute scarce public resources, often laundered to the private sector, to vaccine development and implementation.
The confluence of market forces, financialization and weaponization of vaccines for biosecurity in the guise of global and public health has been demonstrated in pandemic threats from, for example, anthrax, dengue, ebola, HIV, influenza, malaria, meningitis to zika. Vaccine technologies and immunization programs continue to face controversy across sectors, propelled by charges of conflict of interest between Big Pharma, interested research science and states, and regulatory institutions.
Causal relationships between immunization and serious adverse events, along with security concerns and mandatory vaccination introduce different forms of criticism and challenge than in the past. We invite STS researchers, especially applying ethnographic approaches, to analyze issues of particular and global vaccine innovation and development.
What and how we eat is governed in many ways. Politics, regulation, markets, culture, individual and group knowledge, engineering and technology all shape what we eat and how we eat it. Despite the multitude of systems put in place to govern eating, however, bodies, institutions, and materials continually overflow and challenge them.
This panel asks what happens when diverse STS approaches come together to tackle questions about food and food-making? We invite papers that approach these broad questions through the capacious, multivalent theoretical lens of government. We welcome a wide range of topics exploring the modes and scales of governing food, with particular emphasis on knowledge practice and technology.
Possible topics include but are not limited to:. Since the end of the s, several researches have pointed to the emergence of new conflicts, either so-called urban violence or conflicts between diverse groups motivated by territorial, socioeconomic, postcolonial, or ethnic issues. Given this, authorities have gradually sought to diversify partnerships to access new solutions and technologies, composing sociotechnical assemblages capable of sustaining new forms of security governance.
However, these same procedures may be considered responsible for the intensification of these same conflicts, increasing violence among the parties. This panel, then, seeks to problematize issues such as the following: how can approaches between STS and Criminology, Security, Surveillance, or Urban Studies inform understandings of these conflicts? How are private security, police, and military infrastructures, technologies, and other sociotechnical assemblages responsible for intensifying or normalizing violence in these environments?
How do public-private assemblages and the introduction of new surveillance, monitoring and investigation technologies reorganize police and military activities? How do government initiatives propose new socio-technical arrangements for public security and conflict management? We welcome critical perspectives of the relationship between these assemblages, and at the endurance and reproduction of contemporary forms of security and order. Over the past decade, green infrastructure GI , broadly defined as natural, semi-natural and engineered biological features that perform multiple ecosystem services, have emerged as a favored intervention within cities struggling to resolve issues related to stormwater, pollution, and degraded environmental quality.
By mimicking natural functions, GI moves cities away from grey- or strictly engineered techniques of water conveyance. These installations, include, but not limited to, bioswales, pervious pavements, and green roofs, are touted by planners and engineers as the carriers of multiple ecological, health, and social benefits.
Yet, as this new planning priority travels, cities grapple with familiar infrastructural quandaries related to maintenance, repair, and civic interruptions that emerge upon the introduction of new socio-spatial technologies. Additionally, long held professional identities are challenged as the management of stormwater becomes a community, rather than strictly an engineering, concern.
This panel, in alliance with the conference theme, looks to explore in what ways GI challenges current disciplinary methodologies of studying infrastructure. Additionally, we look to understand what elements of inquiry might remain the same. This panel seeks to gather together interdisciplinary perspectives related to green infrastructure. We aim to begin to create a scholarly community of those currently studying GI within STS and related fields to craft new methodologies, raise critiques, find commonality amongst our work.
The New Urban Agenda stresses the importance of Public Spaces that are safe, inclusive, and multifunctional to promote social interaction and integration. Considering the original meaning of technology — the systematic treatment of an art or technique, a method, system, or technique of making or doing — we consider the contested space of the city through the lens of Hi and Low Technologies and how these are employed and deployed in city space for the purposes of co-creation of public spaces; whether or not these actions are playful, provocative, blatant, or unconscious.
This panel invites inquiry into and discussion around such questions as: How do modern technologies, communication devices, gaming platforms, urban screens, or digital media innovate, interrupt, regenerate the traditional meaning of urban environments? How does technology afford and foster the co-creation of public spaces? The purpose is to enquire technology and city space; technology as a medium to co-create meaning, connection, health, enjoyment, and political acts.
To do so, our panel centers on the multiple forms of technology used in city space. Hi-Tech, Low-Tech and Self-Tech are considered as tactics and strategies for the production and consumptions of playful social public spaces. Contemporary human lives are deeply entangled with hormones — sometimes in disturbing, sometimes in enabling ways. Although hormones have been seminal to our understanding of biology since the beginning of the 20th century, in the contemporary world they also allow an insight into transnational movements and relations. Be it in the form of shared medical technologies and expertise, the travel of pharmaceuticals across boundaries, or the logics of hormonal usage shared online — hormones cross material and imagined borders.
In this panel, we employ an interdisciplinary lens to bear on the various ways hormones move human and non-human actors and how, in turn, they are mobilized by them. How do hormones travel in a globally entangled world and how do they intersect with human and nonhuman lives in various contexts? What mechanisms of control and regulatory measures are employed to contain them? What inequalities does the movement of hormones rely on and produce?
And how can we follow hormones and their traces across space and time? We seek papers, that draw on innovative empirical research and make visible various disciplinary and theoretical frameworks to understand the complex, mobile nature of hormones in the everyday. We are interested in case studies from various parts of the world with a focus on transnational entanglements.
Collecting is a fundamental human activity. From early childhood, we curate the flow of objects through our lives, honing skills of discrimination, expression, pleasure and self-fashioning.
Related Information and Organizations (California Series on Social Change and Political Economy, No 19)
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